viernes, 10 de octubre de 2014

All, no, none, each, every, either, neither

All, no, none, each, every, either, neither

She works all day everyday.
Notice the difference. Can you?

All  can be followed by of to show the amount of something
  Rob used all (of) the paper.
All can be used for emphasis. Note the position.
    They all wore blue shorts and shirts.
    Those stamps you gave me have all disappeared.
All means the only thing when it is used in the construction all + subject + verb.
    All I want is some peace and quiet.
It is unusual to use all as a single-word subject or object. Instead we use everything to mean 'all the things'.
    Everything has gone wrong! (NOT All has gone wrong!)
    Thanks for everything  (NOT Thanks for all)
We tend to use everybody and not all the people

No           When no is used to show the quantity of something, it can mean not any.
    There are no plates left. No new students have joined the class.
  • No is not normally used alone before an adjective. Compare:
        This book doesn’t have any interesting parts. (usual)
        There are no interesting parts in this book. (unusual – very emphatic)
None       We do not use no of. Instead, we use none of or none on its own.
    None of the films that are showing in town look very interesting.
    I’ve checked all the films that are showing in town. None look very interesting.

-In everyday speech none is often followed by a plural verb form.
-In formal speech or writing it can be followed by a singular verb form.
    None of these telephones work.
    None of the members of the committee has arrived yet.
  • To emphasize the idea of none we can use none at all or not one.
        A: How many people came to the party?
        B: None! / None at all! / Not one!
Each, every       The meaning of each and every is very similar and often either word is possible.
    Each / Every time I come here I walk round the park.
But sometimes there is a small difference. 
-We use each when we think of the single items in a group, one by one. 
-We use every when we think of the items in a group all together. Compare:
    They gave a medal to each member of the team. // 
I believed every word he said.
  • Each can refer to only two items, while everycannot.
        She kissed him oneach cheek.
    She kissed everymember of the winning team.
  • We can use each of, but we cannot use every of.
        When the team won the cup, each of them was given a medal.
  • Each can be used after the subject, or at the end of a sentence.
        The team memberseach received a medal.
        The team members received a medal each.
  • Repeated actions are generally described with every.
        I practise the violin every day.
Both, Either, neither
1) Both means two of two things.  >  I have two cats. I like both of them.
2) Neither means not one or the other of two things.  > Neither of my cats is grey.
* Remember to use a singular verb after neither.
Neither of the dogs are dangerous. => Neither of the dogs is dangerous.
3) Either means one or the other. There are two cakes. Please have one. You can have either one.

1) You can use both, neither and either directly before a noun.
Both supermarkets are good.
Neither supermarket sells electrical goods.
We can go to either supermarket, I don’t mind.
2) Both, neither and either are often used with ‘of’. But you must always use adeterminer (the, my, these, those, his etc) before the noun.
Both of children like chocolate cake. => Both of the children like chocolate cake.
However, you don’t have to use of with both.
Both of the children like chocolate cake. 
Both children like chocolate cake.
3) You can use both, neither and eitherof + object pronoun (you, them, us).
Both of them wore white dresses.  
Neither of us was late.  
either of you got a pen?
4) You can use both ... and ...neither ... nor ..., and either ... or ....

Both James and Diana work here.
Neither James nor Diana works here.

PRACTICE: Fill in with:
Activity SOURCE

MAY 4, 2013

All / all of most / most of no / none of etc.

• All cars have wheels.
• Some cars can go faster than others.
• No cars. (= no cars allowed)
• I don't go out very often. I'm at home most days.

You cannot say 'all of cars', 'most of people' etc.
• Some people are very unfriendly, (not 'some of people')
 Note that we say most (not 'the most'):
• Most tourists don't visit this part of the town, (not 'the most tourists')

Some of... / most of... / none of... etc.
You can use the words in the box (also none and half) with of. You can say some of(the people),
most of (my friends), none of (this money) etc.
We use some of, most of (etc.) + the / this / that / these / those / my / his / Ann's... etc.
So we say:  Some of the people, some of those people (but not 'some of people')
Most of my friends, most of Ann's friends (but not 'most of friends')
None of this money, none of their money (but not 'none of money')

For example:
• Some of the people I work with are very friendly.
• None of this money is mine.
• Have you read any of these books?
• I wasn't well yesterday. I spent most of the day in bed.

You don't need of after all or half. So you can say:
• All my friends live in London, or All of my friends...
• Half this money is mine or  Half of this money....
Compare all... and all (of) the...:
• All flowers are beautiful. (= all flowers in general)
• All (of) the flowers in this garden are beautiful. (= a particular group of flowers)

You can use all of / some of / none of etc. + it/us/you/them:
 'How many of these people do you know? 'None of them.' / 'A few of them.'
• Do any of you want to come to a party tonight?
• 'Do you like this music? 'Some of it.  Not all of it.'
Before it/us/you/them you need of after all and half (all of, half of):all of us (not 'all us')            half of them (not 'half them')
You can use the words in the box (and also none) alone, without a noun:
• Some cars have four doors and some have two.
• A few of the shops were open but most (of them) were closed.
• Half (of) this money is mine, and half (of it) is yours, (not 'the half)

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